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What are the special characters used in URL and how does it work?

Uniform or Universal Resource Locator or simply URLs provide a uniform way of identifying resources and information that are available on the web using the internet protocols. The URLs starts with a protocol name that defines which service the user is trying to access. For example in the URL http://www.google.com, the user is trying to access the resource of google using the HTTP protocol, while in the URL ftp://www.codeprogramming.org, the user
maybe trying to upload files on the domain.
Some of the special characters used in the URLs are:

Characters                                        Symbols
– Asterisks                                              *
– Dollar signs                                        $
– Exclamation mark                            !
– Hyphens                                              –
– Left/right parentheses                    ()
– Periods                                                .
– Plus signs                                           +
– Single quotation marks                   ‘
– Underscores                                     _
– Front/back slashes                        / \
– Percentage                                      %

 

Character Code Points (Hexadecimal) Code Points (Decimal) Details
Space 20 32 Significant sequences of spaces may be lost in some uses (especially multiple spaces)
Quotation Marks 22 34 These characters are often used to delimit URLs in plain text.
‘Less Than’ symbol (“<“) 3C 60
‘Greater Than’ symbol (“>”) 3E 62
‘Pound’ Character (“#”) 23 35 This is used in URLs to indicate where a fragment identifier (bookmarks/anchors in HTML) begins.
Percent Character (“%”) 25 37 This is used in URLs to encode/escape other characters. It should also be encoded.
Miscellaneous Characters Some systems can possibly modify these characters.
Left Curly Brace (“{“) 7B 123
Right Curly Brace (“}”) 7D 125
Vertical Bar/Pipe (“|”) 7C 124
Backslash (“\”) 5C 92
Caret (“^”) 5E 94
Tilde (“~”) 7E 126
Left Square Bracket (“[“) 5B 91
Right Square Bracket (“]”) 5D 93
Grave Accent (“`”) 60 96

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